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In the mid an armed fight broke out between the Armed Forces of Sudan and the Rapid Support Forces. It is said that it all happened due to the rivalry between Al burhan and general Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo

 

Well, I guess everyone by now knows the fact that Sudan is burning. This now depicts the humanitarian crisis that the country is facing, people are fleeing away and the situation is a whole mess.

 

The immediate cause of this crisis is the fact that  RSF and the Army of Sudan are having a faceoff and there is a fight over who will take control of the country be it Abdel Fattah al-Burhan     or

General Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo

 

In this episode, we will get to know

 

A brief about Sudan and its background

  •  Who is Omar Al Bashir and how he got the
  • Who is General Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo
  • We will get to know about Al Burhan.
  • Then we will talk about the Darfur conflict
  • What is RSF and how it is formed?
  • In the end, we shall know what series of events led to the present conflict which is now turning into a civil war.

 

Brief about Sudan

 

Sudan has been in a crisis since its independence, so more than it being a crisis for a country. It is more of a power struggle.

 

Sudan is situated in Northeast Africa and is one of the largest countries on the continent

It covers 1.9 million square kilometers. It is also one the poorest countries in the world, with 46 million people living on an average annual income of $750 (£606) ahead.

The population of Sudan is predominantly Muslim and the country’s official languages are Arabic and English.

Earlier Sudan was jointly ruled by Egypt and British but before independence Egypt was out so ultimately the united Sudan got independence from Britain in 1956

 

The series of civil wars started just a year before her independence.

 

From 1955 to 1972

 

SECOND CIVIL WAR, 1983-2005 which led to the independence of Sudan in 2011. Meanwhile, in 1989 Omar Al Bashir came to power after the coup in 1989.

 

Mr Bashir was born in 1944 to a farming family in northern Sudan – then Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. He is a member of al-Bedairyya al-Dahmashyya, a Bedouin tribe belonging to the larger Ja’alin group.

The son of a farmer, Bashir was born in 1944 in what was still the Kingdom of Egypt and Sudan, 12 years before the end of British colonial rule. After completing secondary school, he studied at the prestigious national military academies in Cairo and then Khartoum, where he graduated in 1966. The dominant ideology in both was authoritarian Arab nationalism – though Islamist activism and ideas were spreading fast.

He joined the Egyptian army as a young man and rose through the ranks, fighting in the 1973 war against Israel.

 

He became a prominent leader of Islamist sympathizers in the armed forces and led a group of army officers in a bloodless military coup against the civilian government of the then-prime minister, Sadiq al-Mahdi, in 1989. Bashir appeared at a rally with a Qur’an in one hand and an AK-47 in the other, promising “to purge … the enemies of the people and the armed forces”. An assault on secular officials and politicians followed in a concerted drive to impose a rigorous interpretation of sharia law.

 Hassan al-Turabi, a hardline Islamist politician and cleric was one of the key allies of Omar Al Bashir.

The first in the 1990s was Hassan al-Turabi, a prominent Sunni Muslim who until his death in 2016 advocated an Islamic state and ushered in a bill introducing Sharia to all provinces

 

Under the reign of Omar al Bashir Sudan rapidly became a center of “revolutionary” and Islamist radicalism, She hosted Osama bin Laden and a series of conferences for anti-western extremists of all ideologies. This alienated many Western countries, as well as Sudan’s neighbours.

However, Bashir showed pragmatism too and allowed French secret services to capture the infamous terrorist Carlos the Jackal in 1994. Bin Laden was forced to leave two years later and Turabi was marginalised in 1999.

Growing oil revenues eased the economic situation, but by 2000, when Bashir was elected for a second official term in what was still, in effect, a one-party state, he was coming under intense international pressure to end the civil war in the south that had caused the deaths of nearly 2 million people

After extensive negotiations, Bashir and the rebel leader John Garang signed a peace agreement in Nairobi in January 2005, granting southern Sudan autonomy and a referendum on independence in six years.

 

Two years later Darfur conflict, oil-rich South Sudan seceded following a referendum, leading to a massive cut in government revenues. Some analysts date the beginning of the end for Bashir, who relied on state resources to buy off both potential rivals and popular protests, to this moment.

The veteran leader tried to mitigate the effects of the deepening economic crisis by building warmer diplomatic relationships with China, the US and key powers in the Gulf. Though this led to the easing of sanctions and some new funding, it was insufficient to stave off disaster.

 

Little is known about his private life. He has no children and took a second wife in his 50s. He married the widow of Ibrahim Shams al-Din, considered a war hero in the north – as an example to others, he said.

The long civil war had seen many colleagues fall, and he implored others to marry again so war widows could be taken care of.

As head of state, his focus largely remained soldiering – the political lead being taken by two other figures.

Meanwhile, a conflict broke out in 2003 which is going to establish Omar as one of the ruthless dictators and it will also give birth to the future leader of Sudan. This conflict was called as Darfur conflict.

While the South was burning as usual, the conflict also began in Darfur where two rebel groups – Sudan Liberation Movement and Justice and Equality Movement – took up arms against the Bashir government in 2003 accusing the government of being very ignorant of the non-Arab population.

In response, the government had unleashed a militant group named Janjaweed. Human rights groups have accused the Janjaweed of war crimes – including killings, rapes and torture of civilians – throughout the conflict in Darfur.

Entered Dagalo, Dagalo was born around 1974 into the Mahariya tribe of the Rizeigat community in Darfur, the nephew of a tribal chief in the camel-trading branch of the Rizeigat. He has little formal education, dropping out of school in the third grade and later becoming a camel trader.

 

He rose through the ranks, catching the eye of President al-Bashir, who was recruiting Janjaweed to fight non-Arab people who began revolting against his rule in 2003 in Darfur, and Dagalo soon became a commander.

 

In 2013 under the leadership of Dagalo, RSF was formed. It includes combined elements of the Janjaweed into a new force under the auspices of al-Bashir and his National Intelligence and Security Services.

It evolved from so-called janjaweed militias that fought in a conflict in the 2000s in the Darfur region, where they were used by the government of long-ruling President Omar al-Bashir to help the army put down a rebellion. An estimated 2.5 million people were displaced and 300,000 were killed in the conflict. International Criminal Court prosecutors accused government officials and janjaweed commanders of genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity in Darfur.

 

Over time the forces grew and were used as border guards in particular to clamp down on irregular migration. In tandem, Hemedti’s business interests grew with help from Bashir, and his family expanded holdings in gold mining, livestock, and infrastructure.

Beginning in 2015, the RSF, along with Sudan’s army, began sending troops to fight in the war in Yemen alongside Saudi and Emirati troops, allowing Hemedti to forge ties with the Gulf powers.

 

In 2017, a law legitimizing the RSF as an independent security force was passed. Military sources said that the army’s leadership had long expressed concern about the development of Hemedti’s forces.

To know the context of Sudan fighting we have to see what happened in 2019. In 2019, after enduring 30 years of Bashir’s rule, people began to protest against the regime and eventually Bashir’s rule was overthrown. However, people continued to protest in which people of Sudan demanded democratic elections and the establishment of civilian government.

Four months later protestor and the military agreed to set up the Sovereignty Council, a power-sharing body of military officers and civilians, which would lead Sudan to elections at the end of 2023. Abdalla Hamdok was appointed Prime Minister for the transitional period, and he took office in August of that year.

However, the new arrangement was short-lived as the military overthrew Hamdok’s government in October 2021, and Burhan became de-facto leader of the country. Dagalo, vice-president of the ruling council and Burhan’s partner in the military seizure of power became the second-in-command. Burhan announced that the military would hold power until elections are held in July 2023.

While reading the history of Sudan one thing is very clear Sudanese never had a peaceful life. It has been either affected by civil war.

It is obvious that in the quest of power, it is always the people who have to pay the price by losing their lives.

 

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